I think dreams are truly shadows, reflections of the sleep, the sleep is resting periods and releases copies of events that took place in our daily lives near or far and connected to common goals to find solutions, keep our hopes going, reinforce our ideal and ideas, warning us from dangerous behaviors, and it is a God gift to telling us that we are not alone, and that he will be with us even when we sleep or die. Dreams present a running narrative rather than exclusively visual imagery.
Mother! Does the sun have dreams like us, the 5 years old child asked?
No, my son, the sun does not dream, the mother answered.
Why mom? The child asked again.
Because the sun dances at night, and keeps us warm in the morning, the mother replied.
She cannot fall asleep because if she does all creatures on earth will sleep forever, she added.
So she kept dancing at night and the moon turned on his light to keep her company, the mother was trying to explain to her child.
So the sun and the moon dancing together, wow that’s nice, the child replied.
Yes my son, they dance together, and when you are in love you dance and you don’t need to sleep, she giggled and laughed.
The child didn’t understand what she meant! Oh, mom love is not good then if it doesn’t make you sleep, the child answered back. I will not love anybody then because I need to sleep; the child was talking to himself and walked to his room to sleep.
That child was me.
Ever since that conversation, I was always looking at the moon lonely at night wondering where his girlfriend is ,and why they are not dancing together, and when the sun rises, I feel sorry for her because her boyfriend is not to be found.
Mother and I think you are wrong; I asked my mother.
Because I think the moon is cheating in the morning while the sun is dancing alone, because I cannot find him, and the sun must be sleeping at night because the moon was alone all the time. I told my mother while she tucked me to sleep.
When you will be grownup you will know all about it my son, she replied.
I wonder what the moon dreams about mom. Does he dream about his girlfriend, and why don’t they get married? I asked.
You have so much imagination son, go to bed and tomorrow we discuss it, goodnight and sweet dream, she answered.
When we had an eclipse of the moon or the sun, my mother used to explain it to me simply by saying the sun is getting mad at the moon because he is leaving her sometimes.
The moon is a very naughty mother, I said.
So are you mad at my dad? I asked.
No son, why are you asking this question? She replied.
Because my dad leaves at night and sometimes never comes back until the morning, is he naughty like the moon? I answered her.
This is a different matter my son, go to sleep she replied, with a giggle.
We didn’t have a TV in those days, so my mother used to read us children’s stories about A a Aldeen, Sinbad and Ali Baba. But I was more interested to know about the sun and the moon affairs.
Mom, do they have children? I asked.
Who? My mom replied.
The sun and the moon, do they have children? I asked.
Yes, MY son they do? She replied. Do you see all those stars in the sky? They are their children and grand sons and daughters.
Wow, I was surprised, there were so many kids! The moon is a really naughty father, I asked.
Yes he is like your dad, she replied with a laugh …. go to sleep she ordered me.
I used to write my dreams since I was 6 years old, and make sure that I remember most of them, and as they say dreams are conversations with your inner self, inner mind, an outlet for stress relief, a way to answer difficult questions, and find solutions. Sometimes I had and still have prophetic dreams that come true and almost true.
In time I managed to change my dreams and add to it each day I went to sleep until I managed to create a secret garden in my dream with flowing water and amazing flowers and benches, and tall fences and protected area.
I used to escape the hardship of life and go to sleep and immediately I go to this secret garden and I feel safe and so relaxed until I woke up and find myself in a poor home with no food, my father was in a political prison in Baghdad city, the city of Sinbad and Ali Baba, and face reality of going to work at early age to help my mom, then go to school.
I red almost every book about dream decoding, from psychology perspective to translation of dreams, throw the holy books, the 12 school thoughts of dreams, the Native Indians, the Arabs, Chinese, East India and Buddhist, Far East, and Europeans dream analyses and ideas.
The bible and the Quran telling us allot about dreams, prophetic dreams of Joseph, Jacob, Daniel, and many others holy men, The decoding by Imam Ali, Ibn siren, Al Jahedh, Al Jelani, Jaffar Al Sadiq, Al Ansari, Al Demeri and many more. I used to decode dreams for people from the age 16.
The more you read and be skillful in dream decoding using Symbols, key factors, color, words, letters, and numbers (NUMEROLOGY), the Kabbalah, astrology, and the more you have a clear and pure intentions the more your dreams come true.
the more you add to your wisdom of dreams decoding. The more you are skillful with the holy books decoding the more you can correlate the events and situations.
Symbols are the language of dreams.
A symbol can invoke a feeling or an idea and often has a much more profound and deeper meaning than any one word can convey. At the same time, these symbols can leave you confused and wondering what that dream was all about.
Acquiring the ability to interpret your dreams is a powerful tool. In analyzing your dreams, you can learn about your deep secrets and hidden feelings. Remember that no one is a better expert at interpreting your dreams than yourself.
To guide you with your dreams interpretations, we have interpreted over 5900 keywords and symbols and over 20,000 different meanings in our ever expanding dream dictionary. These meanings are in no way, the final say in what YOUR dream means, but hopefully it will inspire you to explore and offer a suggestive starting point for understanding your own dreams. There is no “one dream interpretation fits all.”
Dreams figure prominently in major world religions. The dream experience for early humans, according to one interpretation, gave rise to the notion of a human soul, but the soul was mentioned in the Torah and the Quran. Scientists do not believe in the soul , while we do know that God is True and he said that he takes our soul after we sleep and the journey of the soul with its reflections of dreams goes to God and then only he can send it back or keep it rendering the body to die.
Every detail, even the minutest element in your dream is important and must be considered when analyzing your dreams. Each symbol represents a feeling, a mood, a memory or something from your unconscious. Look closely at the characters, animals, objects, places, emotions, and even color and numbers that are depicted in your dreams. Even the most trivial symbol can be significant.
This dictionary, along with your own personal experiences, memories and circumstances, will serve to guide you through a meaningful and personalized interpretation. With practice, you can gain an understanding of the cryptic messages your dreams are trying to tell you.
A dream is a succession of images, emotions, ideas, thoughts, solutions, and sensations that usually occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep. Humans spend about two hours dreaming per night. and each dream lasts around 5 to 20 minutes, although the dreamer may perceive the dream as being much longer than this.
I recorded about 2000 dreams related directly to my bladder been full , so the dreams always come in situations where it forces you to wake up and go to washroom, each dream completely different than other dreams in the story and situation and the main key is the dream put you in relieving yourself in public or embarrassing situation then it force you to wake up.
Our brain is so good that it selects certain dreams and images to enforce them and uses them again when it finds it more suitable to wake us up. The faster we wake up to go to the washroom , the better for the brain to use those dreams again and again with different twists of the stories. I can write a book from those 2000 dreams and some of them are so hilarious.
Other dreams are related to your stomach being hungry or too full, your thirst, your anger, and so on. I called them physiological dreams.
I also found that some dreams are trying to tell us that we have this or that disease trusts me on this. My dream told me that I have gallstones multiple times, until I ultrasound myself in the morning and I found that I do have 2 cm gallstones. You will not see the gallbladder stone, but the dream will show that you get injured on that side, like falling on a stone, or someone stabs you on your right side, etc.
This ability of the brain to diagnose a disease in our body is a key issue that requires more attention so we might utilize it to find out about more sinister diseases such as cancer. We must start documenting and correlating with thousands of patients and try to find out what the brain is trying to tell us about our body, as early as possible.
The content and function of dreams have been topics of scientific, philosophical and religious interest throughout recorded history. Dream decoding practiced by the Babylonian in Iraq, in the third millennium BCE and even earlier by the ancient Iraqi Sumerians figures prominently in religious texts in several traditions and has played a lead role in psychotherapy.
The scientific study of dreams is called oneirology.
Most modern dream study focuses on the neurophysiology of dreams and on proposing and testing hypotheses regarding dream function. It is not known where in the brain dreams originate, if there is a single origin for dreams or if multiple regions of the brain are involved, or what the purpose of dreaming is for the body or mind.
I also made my own research papers when I was in high school about dreams with blind people, those who were born blind and those who got blind later in life, children dreams, pets dreams, those who are in prisons, dreams and bipolar people, dreams in women and men, artists, and so on. Many of my papers were stolen by my teachers in Iraq, we didn’t have internet or email at that time to protect our research papers.
In the future I think we can discover machines and ways to make people share the same dreams, and interact with others, find a solution, find a disease, even secrets that criminals and terrorists might hide, and we can tap into them, I believe it. I even wrote about the future of 3D dreams, where our brain can be wired through a dream machine and the 3D printer can print small plastic images of our dreams and we can use them as keys to unlock many mysteries.
God takes the souls at the time of their death, and those that do not die [He takes] during their sleep. Then He keeps those for which He has decreed death and releases the others for a specified term. Indeed, there are signs for people who give thought.
Holy Quran-[Surat Az-Zumar,42]
And He it is Who makes The Night as a Robe For you and Sleep as Repose, And makes the Day (As it were a Resurrection)
A person who makes frequent mention of God Almighty, thinks about God glorifies God and completely submits his or her will to God will, if God does it, secure great reward after death in the Hereafter.’
The main argument presented in this work, however, is that even in this current, temporary life, God Almighty will give positive messages of His pleasure, or forthcoming reward in the next world, to persons who praise and glorify Him sincerely. Such messages will come to the person in the form of pleasing, or true dreams.
The human dream experience and what to make of it has undergone sizable shifts over the course of history. Long ago, according to writing from Mesopotamia / Iraq and Ancient Egypt. dreams dictated post-dream behaviors to an extent sharply reduced in later millennia.
These ancient writings about dreams highlight visitation dreams, where a dream figure, usually a deity or a prominent forebear, commands the dreamer to take specific actions, and which may predict future events. Framing the dream experience varies across cultures as well as through time.
Dreaming and sleep are intertwined. Dreams occur mainly in the rapid -eye movement (REM), That what studies showed, but I challenge this Idea, I can lucidly dream, and daydream without any REM. A dream paralyses has no REM.
when brain activity is high and resembles that of being awake. Because REM sleep is detectable in many species, and because research suggests that all mammals experience REM, I know my cat is dreaming and sometimes wake up crying or mewing nervously when she sees a dream that scares her, I know she is dreaming of birds cause in her sleep she cherub and make sounds like seen a birds.
REM sleep has led to conjectures that animals dream. However, humans dream during non-REM sleep, also, and not all REM awakenings elicit dream reports. To be studied, a dream must first be reduced to a verbal report, which is an account of the subject’s memory of the dream, not the subject’s dream experience itself. So, dreaming by non-humans is currently unprovable, as is dreaming by human fetuses and preverbal infants.
In visitation dreams reported in ancient writings, dreamers were largely passive in their dreams, and visual content served primarily to frame authoritative auditory messaging. the king of the Sumerian city-state of Lagash(reigned c. 2144–2124 BCE), rebuilt the temple of Ningirsu as the result of a dream in which he was told to do so.
After antiquity, the passive hearing of visitation dreams largely gave way to visualized narratives in which the dreamer becomes a character who actively participates.
As we know from the history and holy books that those dreams were influenced by the devil and demonic entities to destroy humanity by building temple to worship idols, and do human sacrifice, and when Abraham sent by God to show guide them to the true God , and he destroyed their Idols , the Sumerian wanted to kill him and he ran and was capture by king Nimrud army and put to death by fire. King Nimrud was working directly under the influence of the devil and black magic.
While prophetic dreams to the messengers and prophets of God are clearly from God and not of the devil. God sent them warning, gaudiness and instructions not only by Gabriel but sometimes directly by dreams.
From the 1940s to 1985, Calvin Hall collected more than 50,000 dream reports . In 1966, Hall and Robert Van de Castle published The Content Analysis of Dreams, in which they outlined a coding system to study 1,000 dream reports from college students.
Results indicated that participants from varying parts of the world demonstrated similarity in their dream content. The only residue of antiquity’s authoritative dream figure in the Hall and Van de Castle listing of dream characters is the inclusion of God in the category of prominent persons. Hall’s complete dream reports were made publicly available in the mid-1990s.
I think after studying many papers and books concluded that the most common emotion experienced in dreams were Anxiety, anger, stress, fear, depression, love, passion, devotion, joy, romance, separation anxiety and this is very common with children, pets and incases of divorces, I studied hundreds of these dreams before and after students’ exams.
The research showed that negative emotions dreams are more common than positive dreams and it acts as a defence mechanism against trouble, forecasting warning and solutions to a danger.
In my research throw the year I found that the negative emotion dreams about 70 to 72% of the time in female, and about 60 to 68% in male.10% of men dreams was sexual in content, and it the main animal sign in the dream was snakes, robes, kisses, and anything that stimulate the adrenal and blood pressure in a dream, while in women about 8% and in many different form like water, fluid, stimulation of specific part of the body in a dream, women have more wet dreams than men.
Some dreams may even tell elaborate stories wherein the dreamer enters entirely new, complex worlds and awakes with ideas, thoughts and feelings never experienced prior to the dream.
Sometimes your dream resolves and answers questions. I was doing one of my research papers about gender correlation with the placenta, and I was studying and trying to find a solution to the problem, and I couldn’t, until one day the answer was in my dream clear as the morning. When I woke up and tried the idea and it worked.
Guilt plays a great deal in our dreams. I remember when I was a teenager, I stopped praying and worshiping God. I dreamt that 2 angels came at me very angry and pulled one angel from each hand and told me in a scary voice that God wanted to talk to you. I was so scared and screaming and crying, asking them to leave me alone.
When they bring me to an open field it was full of clouds and thunder moving toward me on top of me while the angels holding my hands, a thundering sound came from the cloud saying ” I am God, why you stopped worshiping me, why you abended your prayers….I was extremely afraid, and I promised him that I will not do that again. (the language was in Arabic)
After I promised the clouds cleared out and the sun was shining, the angels let me go, and as soon as they let me go I ran and ran so far, I jumped a fence of a very beautiful large palace with a large garden and hid myself. There was a tree with golden apples. I took one golden apple and kept it in my pocket. Leaves from the tree started to cover me and made me feel warm, then woke up feeling guilty for stealing that apple from the palace.
My mother was close by and asked me if I was feeling, OK?
Why are you asking me mother? I said
Because you were shaking in your sleep and crying, so I covered you with a blanket to make you warm. I mediately woke up and washed then worshiped God, and I admits that I didn’t keep my full promise, because sometimes I don’t pray in the exact time.
Research tells us that people who are blind from birth do not have visual dreams. Their dream contents are related to other senses, such as hearing, touch, smell, and taste but I challenge this idea, it is true in 90% of the time but not entirely true. because I used to talk to few blind friends, blind since birth and I used to help them when they are in the school after their parents bring them.
I asked them about their dreams. They told me that they dream they can see and described colors! Most of the colors that they saw was red, yellow, white, and orange.
The blind friend also told me in detail he saw buildings, men and women and children. When I asked him how he could do that, he told me that he used to use his hand to touch the face of a person or a pet and figure out the shape and texture then he dreams of them.
So I believe that in our DNA there are all the programs and details of our lives, our body, and the normal anatomy measurements that need it for humans to dream with a body part without seeing it in real life.
Dream study is popular with scientists exploring the mind-brain-problem. Some “propose to reduce aspects of dream phenomenology to neurobiology. But current science cannot specify dream physiology in detail.
Protocols in most nations restrict human brain research to non-invasive procedures. In the United States, invasive brain procedures with a human subject are allowed only when these are deemed necessary in surgical treatment to address medical needs of the same human subject.
I used to dream only in my language, when I moved to Canada and after 3 years I started dreaming in both languages, and after 6 years I was dreaming 70% in the English language. I speak perfect English in my dream but when I wake up my English is still broken! he. What the hell, I said to myself every time I woke up.
Our dreams are trying to perfect our confidence and self-esteem.
Studies detect an increase of blood flow in a specific brain region and then credit that region with a role in generating dreams. But pooling study results has led to the newer conclusion that dreaming involves large numbers of regions and pathways, which likely are different for different dream events.
I think dreams are truly shadows, reflections of the sleep, the sleep is resting periods and releases copies of events that took place in our daily lives near or far and connected to common goals to find solutions, keep our hopes going, reinforce our ideal and ideas, warning us from dangerous behaviors, and it is a God gift to telling us that we are not alone, and that he will be with us even when we sleep or die.
For many humans across multiple eras and cultures, dreams are believed to have functioned as revealers of truths sourced during sleep from Gods or other external entities. Ancient Egyptians believed that dreams were the best way to receive divine revelation, and thus they would induce (or “incubate”) dreams.
They went to sanctuaries and slept on special “dream beds” in hope of receiving advice, comfort, or healing from the gods. Thousands of years ago The Native Indians perfected an art of dream catching, where they make spider net figures to capture the bad dreams and get rid of them and purify the person’s soul.
From a Darwinian perspective dream would have to fulfill some kind of biological requirement, provide some benefit for natural selection to take place, or at least have no negative impact on fitness. Robert (1886), a physician from Hamburg, was the first who suggested that dreams are a need and that they have the function to erase (a) sensory impressions that were not fully worked up, and (b) ideas that were not fully developed during the day.
2021 defensive activation theory, which says that, given the brain’s neuroplasticity, dreams evolved as a visual hallucinatory activity during sleep’s extended periods of darkness, busying the occipital lobe and thereby protecting it from possible appropriation by other, non-vision, sense operations.
In Hinduism, dreaming is one of three states that the soul experiences during its lifetime, the other two states being the waking state and the sleep state. The earliest Upanishads, written before 300 BCE, emphasize two meanings of dreams. The first says that dreams are merely expressions of inner desires. The second is the belief of the soul leaving the body and being guided until awakened. And the 2nd is exactly what the Abrahamic faith mentioned.
In Islamic faith and Judaism, dreams are considered part of the experience of the world that can be interpreted and from which lessons can be garnered. It is discussed in the Talmud, Tractate Berachot 55–60, and in many verses from the holy Quran.
They also differentiated between good dreams (from God) and bad dreams (from evil spirits). They, like many other ancient cultures, incubated dreams in order to receive a divine revelation. Most of the dreams in the bible are in the book of Genesis.
According to Muslim scholars Islam classifies three types of dreams. Firstly, there is the true dream (al-ru’ya), then the false dream, which may come from the devil and finally, the meaningless everyday dream (helm). This last dream could be brought forth by the dreamer’s ego or base appetite based on what they experienced in the real world. The true dream is often indicated by Islam’s hadith tradition. In one narration by the wife of the Prophet, it is said that the Prophet’s dreams would come true like the ocean’s waves. Just as in its predecessors, the holy Quran also recounts the story of Joseph and his unique ability to interpret dreams.
In Buddhism, ideas about dreams are similar to the classical and folk traditions in South Asia. The same dream is sometimes experienced by multiple people, as in the case of the Buddha to be, before he is leaving his home. It is described in the Mahavastu that several of the Buddha’s relatives had premonitory dreams preceding this. Some dreams are also seen to transcend time: the Buddha-to-be has certain dreams that are the same as those of previous Buddhas. In Buddhist literature, dreams often function as a “signpost” motif to mark certain stages in the life of the main character.
In Chinese history, people wrote of two vital aspects of the soul of which one is freed from the body during slumber to journey in a dream realm, while the other remains in the body, and this idea matches the Abrahamic faith.
The Babylonians and Assyrians divided dreams into “good,” which were sent by the gods, and “bad,” sent by demons. And that also reflected in the Abrahamic faith. A surviving collection of dream omens entitled Iskar Zaqqum.
The Greek god of dreams also sent warnings and prophecies to those who slept at shrines and temples. The earliest Greek beliefs about dreams were that their gods physically visited the dreamers, where they entered through a keyhole, exiting the same way after the divine message was given.
Hippocrates (469–399 BCE) had a simple dream theory: during the day, the soul receives images; during the night, it produces images.
Greek philosopher Aristotle 384–322 BCE) believed dreams caused Physiological activity. of course, both were correct and reflect the true ideas of soul and dreams.
Beginning in the late 19th century, Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud, founder of modern-day psychoanalysis, theorized that dreams reflect the dreamer’s unconscious mind and specifically that dream content is shaped by unconscious wish fulfillment. He argued that important unconscious desires often relate to early childhood memories and experiences.
Dream interpretation can be a result of subjective ideas and experiences. One study found that most people believe that “their dreams reveal meaningful hidden truths”. The researchers surveyed students in the United States, South Korea, and India, and found that 74% of Indians, 65% of South Koreans and 56% of Americans believed their dream content provided them with meaningful insight into their unconscious beliefs and desires.
This Freudian view of dreaming was believed significantly more than theories of dreaming that attribute dream content to memory consolidation, problem-solving, or as a byproduct of unrelated brain activity. The same study found that people attribute more importance to dream content than to similar thought content that occurs while they are awake.
Americans were more likely to report that they would intentionally miss their flight if they dreamt of their plane crashing than if they thought of their plane crashing the night before flying (while awake), and that they would be as likely to miss their flight if they dreamt of their plane crashing the night before their flight as if there was an actual plane crash on the route they intended to take.
Back in 1964 I dreamt that the train my mother about to take next day collapsed and I saw many injuries , I woke up and I told my mother about it, and asked her to not go to visit my father .Thanks God she believed in my dream and didn’t go, later in that afternoon we heard on the radio that the train supposed to take was derailed and caused many injuries. My mother hugged me and kissed my head. She asked me what I wanted as a gift for saving her? I told her God saved her to throw my dreams, maybe buy me a Coca Cola, I asked her with a smile.
Lucid dreaming is the conscious perception of one’s state while dreaming. In this state the dreamer may often have some degree of control over their own actions within the dream or even the characters and the environment of the dream. Dream control has been reported to improve with practiced deliberate lucid dreaming, but the ability to control aspects of the dream is not necessary for a dream to qualify as “lucid”a lucid dream is any dream during which the dreamer knows they are dreaming.
Communication between two dreamers has also been documented. The processes involved included EEG monitoring, ocular signaling, incorporation of reality in the form of red-light stimuli and a coordinating website. The website tracked when both dreamers were dreaming and sent the stimulus to one of the dreamers where it was incorporated into the dream. This dreamer, upon becoming lucid, signaled with eye movements; this was detected by the website whereupon the stimulus was sent to the second dreamer, invoking incorporation into that dreamer’s dream.
The recollection of dreams is extremely unreliable, though it is a skill that can be trained. Dreams can usually be recalled if a person is awakened while dreaming.
I had more than 100 dreams recollections and when I go back, I continue the dream story even after waking up and going to the washroom and then going back to bed. I do remember 90% of my dreams daily, but you have to train yourself, I keep paper and pencil, and a tape recorder beside me.
Once I dreamt of the lotto numbers, but I didn’t play them, the next day all those numbers came.
In line with the salience hypothesis, there is considerable evidence that people who have more vivid, intense or unusual dreams show better recall. There is evidence that continuity of consciousness is related to recall. Specifically, people who have vivid and unusual experiences during the day tend to have more memorable dream content and hence better dream recall. People who score high on measures of personality traits associated with creativity, imagination, and fantasy.
Dreams of absent-minded transgression (DAMT) are dreaming wherein the dreamer absent-mindedly performs an action that he or she has been trying to stop (one classic example is of a quitting smoker having dreams of lighting a cigarette). Subjects who have had D.A.M.T have reported waking with intense feelings of guilt. One study found a positive association between having these dreams and successfully stopping the behavior.
There are many different types of daydreams, and there is no consistent definition amongst psychologists.
While daydreaming has long been derided as a lazy, non-productive pastime, it is now commonly acknowledged that daydreaming can be constructive in some contexts.
There are numerous examples of people in creative or artistic careers, such as composers, novelists and filmmakers, developing new ideas through daydreaming. Similarly, research scientists, mathematicians and physicists have developed new ideas by daydreaming about their subject areas.
In a stricter sense, hallucinations are perceptions in a conscious and awake state, in the absence of external stimuli, and have qualities of real perception, in that they are vivid, substantial, and located in external objective space. The latter definition distinguishes hallucinations from the related phenomena of dreaming, which does not involve wakefulness.
A nightmare is an unpleasant dream that can cause a strong negative emotional response from the mind, typically fear, horror, despair, losing jobs, severe anxiety, and great sadness . The dream may contain situations of danger, discomfort, psychological or physical terror. Sufferers usually awaken in a state of distress and may be unable to return for a prolonged period of time. 99% of my nightmares were demonic in nature, dreaming of Jinn, and entities, maybe because I deal with paranormal investigation, and go to haunted houses alone .
A night terror, also known as a sleep terror or pavor nocturnus, that predominantly affects children, causing feelings of terror or dread. Night terrors should not be confused with nightmares, which are bad dreams that cause the feeling of horror or fear.
One theory of déjà vu attributes the feeling of having previously seen or experienced something to having dreamed about a similar situation or place, and forgetting about it until one seems to be mysteriously reminded of the situation or the place while awake. Many times, I stopped my car while I was driving on vacation, I stopped in an area, and I have the strangest feeling that I was here once.
Steve Ramsey, PhD.