Did you know that El Gordo, Mac, Lucy, Galaxy X and every star, planet, dwarf and comet in the universe is watching Earth, and waiting for you? Read Romans 8:19-23. The creation—all of it—waits in eager longing for God. So many of the sites on your voyage were in decay or dead: exploding stars, colliding galaxies, drifting planets, consuming black holes. But Romans 8:21 says you can deliver the universe from this bondage. Verse 22 says the creation is in pain, waiting to be saved, and its Creator wants you to be one of those to do it.
Isaiah 51:16 says that human beings will plant the heavens! The universe was not made to stay desolate. God created it to be inhabited! This is why Earth is so important. It is the staging ground for universal and eternal expansion! It is the base camp for the greatest expansion ever! And your potential is bound up in that plan.
Out there is a universe created with purpose—a universe of wonders and mysteries. And it is a universe waiting for you.
the stars is Gliese 436 B, only 30 light-years from Earth. Astronomers believe this Neptune-size planet is composed of exotic water. Because “Gli” orbits 13 times closer to its star than Earth does to our sun, the surface is a balmy 572 degrees Fahrenheit. But the planet’s immensely pressurized core prevents the ice from melting. Just as coal under pressure creates diamonds, water under pressure can create “hot ice” with names like Ice vii and Ice x.
Speaking of diamonds, as you travel 50 light-years from Earth, you reach BPM 37093, a dwarf star. Welcome to the biggest diamond in the universe. Nicknamed “Lucy” after a pop song, this white dwarf has some serious sparkle. When small stars die, they often become white dwarfs, like Lucy. The intense pressure on the carbon center of these dying stars forms diamond. Lots of diamond. Lucy weighs 2.27 thousand trillion tons. That is an estimated 10 billion trillion trillion carats. That’s a whole lot bigger than the largest diamond found on Earth, the Star of Africa, which weighs a mere 530 carats.
If you want a diamond closer in size to Lucy, hang around. Our sun is projected to die in 5 billion years. Two billion years after that, the ember core would crystallize, leaving this solar system with a giant diamond of its own.
Pulsars and Neutron Stars
As you cross an expanse of 770 light-years, you come closer and closer to a flashing light. But as you approach psr J0108-1431, you see that it emits a shining beam of light like a lighthouse. As it spins, that beam points toward Earth, giving the illusion of a flashing light. This is called a pulsar. When a star dies and collapses on itself, it becomes a neutron star. If it spins, it becomes known as a pulsar. A neutron star is normally 12 to 15 miles in diameter. But it packs a punch: It can contain up to twice the mass of our sun. A sugar cube-size piece of neutron star would weigh about a billion tons: Mount Everest in the palm of your hand! These stars also have incredible pull. Their gravitational pull ranges from 100 million to 1 quadrillion (a million billion) times that of Earth.
You wouldn’t think it, but the oldest living star in our universe is just up the road. At 6,000 light-years from Earth, you come to SM0313. “Smo” was born 13.6 billion years ago—just a few hundred years after the estimated creation of the universe. “Smo” has almost no heavy elements, thus helping scientists determine its age. But this leaves experts with a question: How did it get there? How did the oldest star in the universe arrive on our back porch? One of the literal mysteries of the universe.
Looking Out to See the Past
We are now 6,000 light-years from Earth. Try waving to your friends and family on Earth. They won’t see your gesture for another 6,000 years! Yes, it takes 6,000 years for light from Smo to reach our home. That means when you see Smo through a telescope, you are seeing the universe from 6,000 years ago: the time when God created mankind on Earth!
J0108 is one of 2,000 known pulsars in the universe. There are likely many more, but they don’t point their beam at us to let us know. J0108 is old—the oldest pulsar we have found. In its old age, it doesn’t spin as fast as other pulsars. The fastest pulsar in the universe rotates at 716 times per second—at an estimated 1 million miles per hour. Scientists believe pulsars must steal energy from nearby stars to go that fast.
Deep space is cold at –455 degrees Fahrenheit! But after 5,000 light-years of travel, you reach the coldest place in the cosmos: the Boomerang Nebula. It is –458 degrees Fahrenheit, or 1 degree Kelvin. The nebula is a long way from anything. Its only warmth comes from background radiation leftover from the creation of the universe.
A Cloud of Alcohol
Don’t get too excited. This isn’t some galactic libation. It is methyl alcohol, not the ethanol in your evening glass of shiraz. That said, it is something to behold.
This cloud of alcohol drifting through space is 288 billion miles long.
Looking back, you are now 10,000 light-years from Earth.
Sitting 22,000 light-years from Earth is Ogle-2016-blg-1190Lb. Ogle makes Jupiter look like Pluto. The planet is 13.4 times the mass of scrawny Jupiter. Ogle is the largest planet ever discovered. Any larger and it would be classed as a brown dwarf like our homeless friend cfb.
Ogle mingles in the center of the Milky Way. Beside it sits the brown dwarf desert—a place devoid of brown dwarfs. This is partially why scientists believe Ogle could be a planet, not a dwarf. Either way, it’s definitely worth a visit on our galactic getaway.
But don’t think this is a great piece of future real estate. The gravitational pull would crush you if you tried to move there. God fashioned our Earth and allows it to spin just fast enough to make life possible—without drifting away or being squashed. God told Job about the time when He marked up the dimensions of our planet! (Job 38:5).
Mysterious Galaxy X
Jump out of your galaxy to a place 300,000 light-years away from Earth. Meet Galaxy X. This galaxy is chiefly composed of dark matter—the mysterious substance that neither emits nor reflects light. The existence of this is revealed by a cluster of just four young pulsating stars on the edge of our Milky Way. Galaxy X is small. So small, in fact, that it actually orbits the Milky Way.
The Indestructible Star
Traveling 500 million light-years from Earth, you come across a survivor. When a star goes supernova, it is usually considered fatal. A supernova is a star exploding in an incredible ball of light that can last for months. When scientists saw iPTF14hls pop, they figured that would be the last they saw of the little sun. But two years later, iPTF is still going. It flared five times over the 24-month period. Looking back in the records, astronomers found an explosion of the star was recorded in 1954.
Checking in on this unstoppable star ought to remind us how little we know of our universe. Of the trillions of stars, this one is the only star that has survived at least two supernovae. How many more fascinating, unique planets and stars are out there beyond our gaze?
A Whole Lot of Nothing
Three billion light-years from Earth, you stand on the brink of the largest structure ever discovered. It is called the Supervoid. This expanse is 1.8 billion light-years across and is missing some 10,000 galaxies. Again, scientists are left scratching their heads. It doesn’t fit into predicted models of the universe. They claim it is simply too big to exist!
I think this is a dying part of the universe and went to dark mater .
The Chief of All Black Holes
You are now 12.8 billion light-years from Earth. Here you find J0100+2802, a black hole 12 billion times the size of the sun. As it sucks in surrounding debris, it heats the material up. This creates a quasar that beams light from across the early universe to us here on Earth.
Aside from gamma-ray bursts, quasars are the brightest things in the universe. Some emit more light than 100 galaxies! As impressive as that is, God promises in Daniel 12:1-3 that the resurrected saints in the Millennium will shine “as the brightness of the firmament; and they that turn many to righteousness as the stars forever and ever.”
You are almost out of time on this voyage—literally. You are near the edge of known space and time! There is one place left to visit, located 13.3 billion light-years from Earth.
That’s why I think is the reason for the expansion of the universe to outer core from all direction as it must be black halls all around from early explosion .
Galactic tour of the universe and the future of mankind.
A Long Way From Home
At the edge of the great beyond we meet Galaxy MACS0647-JD. According to current data, “Mac” is the furthest galaxy from us in the observable universe.
Mac is probably older than our Milky Way. As we see him through the Hubble telescope, he looks small and young, but remember: This is how he looked 13.3 billion years ago.
Scientists believe Mac has existed for 97 percent of the history of space and time as we know it.
Sitting here on the edge of the universe, who knows what Mac can see. Astronomers are always finding galaxies further away. They are constantly challenging our perception of when time began.
Dark Energy is a fact. Dark Energy is not an extrapolation such as the Big Bang, or an extrapolation of extrapolations, such as Cosmic Inflation. Dark Energy enables a completely different cosmology. Taking Dark Energy seriously renders Cosmic Inflation and the Big Bang superfluous… And make the universe much older than usually considered.
The basic reasoning establishing the Big Bang is of primary school level. And yet, from recent observations, it is probably erroneous. I propose that the universe is rather of the order of 100 billion years old, rather than the official 13.8 billion [sic!]. Why do I think the universe is much bigger, and much older than most accredited, professional cosmologists do? Why would celebrity physicists be misinforming the public?
Galaxies To Infinity. 100 Billion Years Old, I Say.
[One photon a minute to get this picture!]
Boldly averaging observations of red shifts in our neighborhood, it has been artistically found that galaxies located 3.2 million light years away recede at 72 kilometers per second (that art was involved is obvious when one gets in the detail… And why Hubble got the numbers wrong by a factor of two initially).
Divide that inter-galactic distance by that speed, and that should tell a primary school student when the universe started. The good news: physicists understand this. The bad news: it’s all too simple, reality seems to disagree.
Let’s do the computation in detail.
(We will use the notation “^” to indicate powers; so 10^2 is (10) (10), 10^4 is 10,000, etc.)
Light covers (3) (10^5) kilometers in one second, and there are around 100,000 = 10^5 seconds in a day. So light covers (3) (10^10) ( 3) (10^2) ~ 10^13 kilometers in a year (=10,000 billion kilometers). Multiply that by (3) (10^6), the distance to that receding galaxy, to get:
(3) 10^19) kilometers (3 times ten billion billion kilometers). Divide by 70 kilometers per second, to find how many seconds it took for galaxies to separate 3.2 million light years: that’s ½ (10^18) seconds. Now there are around (3) (10^5)(10^2) seconds in a year. One gets roughly 14 billion years.
14 billion years ago, or so, the material of that 3.2 million light year away galaxy was next door.
From, there, applying the Principle of Homogeneity (PH: that everything is everywhere roughly the same), one deduces that all those things that became galaxies were next to each other. Notice that this recourse to PH is a philosophical jump: it seems likely, because it is the simplest we can think of, but it’s not a sure thing.
The only way this could have happened is if this expansion all started in the same place… in time (not space!). Presto, you have the result that the history of the universe is that of a Big Bang that started 14 billion years ago. So far, so good.
Notice a second philosophical jump occurred: to get to the conclusion that there was a Big Bang, we assumed that the expansion happened at the same rate, all along. That sounded like the easiest hypothesis, 80 years ago (or when the Big Bang was explicitly formulated, around 60 years ago). But there was NO proof, that the expansion had been at that rate all along, and some observers of things cosmological, or theoreticians, begged to differ (even during the 1960s).
I certainly did not agree with the certainty that the preceding reasoning was a sure thing, because it was not. I do not trust concept that are viewed as sure things, when obviously they are not. I view in them probable examples of herd effects.
However, in the last ten years, it turned out that, to everyone’s amazement, a fact unanticipated by the majority of cosmologists emerged. The rate of expansion was found to be increasing noticeably.
A force expanded the fabric of space ever more. It was called “Dark Energy” (energy, because that’s what one needs to expand space, dark, because the force vector itself could be not be seen; also there already was one problem, called “Dark Matter”, mass distributed all over, dwarfing the visible mass).
I Propose Doing Away With Weird Stuff On Left Side Of the Sketch (Explosion, Cosmic Inflation, etc.)
The very existence of “Dark Energy” immediately busted the “universe is 14 billion years old” conclusion. Indeed, one cannot assume the expansion was 71 kilometers per second, all along, when we see that this expansion is now accelerating. It’s changing: get it? C H A N G E… It’s changing now, so it should have been changing in the past.
It’s more logical to suppose the expansion was always there, and accelerated all along, that the expansion accelerated in the past as it does now. So as the expansion of the universe is NOT linear now, it’s only simpler, logically, to suppose that it was NOT linear in the past. Instead, it looks as if, in first approximation,the expansion of the universe was some sort of exponential tapering fading in the past.
(In other words, since its rate is accelerating now, we may as well suppose it accelerated similarly, all along! Instead the extrapolated Big Bang + extrapolated Cosmic Inflation + Observed Dark Energy implies that the rate of acceleration of the Universe varied enormously in the past: first accelerating gigantically, then slowing down, then coming to a standstill, then re-accelerating… Weird!)
On the back of an envelope, considering the present rate of acceleration of the expansion, and extrapolating that acceleration in the past, your generous servant can determine the universe ought to be 100 billion years old, rather than 14 billion years.